Monday, April 15, 2019
Exercise vs. Diet in Weight Loss Essay Example for Free
Exercise vs. Diet in Weight Loss studyINTRODUCTIONIt is estimated that 55% of the adult population in the United States atomic number 18 either pear-shaped or over free chargeing ( subject Institutes of Health, National Heart Lung, and Blood Institute, 1998). corpulency substantially increases an individuals risk of despicable from chronic diseases such(prenominal) as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes. Those with excess pad in the abdominal region are at increased health risk (National Institutes of Health, National Heart Lung, and Blood Institute). In an start to define the role of lesson in the treat handst and prevention of obesity, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) held a scientific roundtable to address this subject. Following the meeting, several consensus biddings regarding person-to-person activity and public health were released. Two statements are of particular interest to the applied serve professional. The first statement declares that the addition of exercise to a fast with restricted caloric intake promotes fat loss, enchantment maintaining fat free mass. The second statement claims that physical activity, without caloric parturiency, minimally if at all affects fat loss. The statements show that to optimize pack loss, a gang of regimen and exercise is best, and that exercise alone will not suffice.Although it is well established that a victuals of nourishment and exercise is the best way to control carcass burden, a recent review by Ross, Freeman, and Janssen (2000) challenges ACSMs statement that exercise alone is not an effective method of weight loss. This review suggests that the studies this statement was based upon do not effectively compare caloric restricting programs to increased null consumption programs. They conclude that if these factors were equal, exercise alone can be as effective as caloric restriction for weight loss. The purpose of this article is to present Ross et al.s argument contrasting the ACSM consensus statement.EXERCISE VS. CALORIC restraintIn their review, Ross et al. (2000) report that few randomized control trials equally compare regimen alone to exercise but weight loss programs. For example, in a twelve-week study, Hagan, Wong, and Whittam (1986) compared the amount of weight lost through and through diet only to the amount of weight lost through an exercise program. The obese women and men in the diet only group (n=24) that reduced their caloric intake lost 5.5 kg and 8.4 kg, respectively. To achieve this degree of weight loss, women reduced their average caloric intake by 945 kilocalories a day while the men fall their average intake by 1705 kilocalories a day.The exercise only group (n = 24 obese men and women), performed a 30-minute walk/jog program 5 days/week. On average, the women expended 190 kilocalories per session while the men expended an average of 255 kilocalories per session, which resulted in a total weight lo ss of .6 kg and .3 kg for women and men, respectively. The women in the diet only program decreased their dust fat from 35% to 29%, where as the women doing exercise only went from 35% to 33% body fat. Additionally, the men in the diet only group decreased body fat from 26% to 21% where as the exercise only group experienced no change in their body fat. This study clearly illustrates that weight loss through diet only was not equated to energy expenditure through exercise only. Therefore, equal amounts of weight loss should not be expected.In contrast, Sopko et al. (1985) in a twelve-week study, with obese men, reported that when the negative energy balance created by diet only and exercise only are equal, the two interventions produce similar results. The participants in the diet only group (n=10) experienced a weight loss of 6.1kg by restricting their caloric intake ergocalciferol kcal/day. The exercise only group (n=6) lost 6.2 kg by performing a treadmill travel program in wh ich they expended 500 kcal/day.The men in the diet only group went from a body fat of 31.4% to 25%, where as the exercise only group went from 26.7% to 19%. These results show that equivalent amounts of weight loss can be obtained when the energy expenditure from exercise is similar to the amount of calories restricted through diet. This is contrary to the results of Hagan et. al., as well as the ACSM consensus statement that exercise without caloric restriction minimally affects weight loss. Table 1 summarizes some diet versus exercise weight management studies, further validating when energy expenditure is matched, weight loss is similar.EXERCISE WITHOUT WEIGHT LOSS THE HEALTH CONNECTIONExcess fat in the abdominal area independently increases an individuals risk of insulin resistance and high pipeline lipids. This distribution of body fat is also a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (Grundy et al., 1999, National Institutes of Health, National Heart Lung, and Blood Instit ute, 1998). It has been shown that weight management programs resulting in a loss of total body fat also reduce a persons amount of abdominal fat. This loss of abdominal fat is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it has been shown that exercising individuals, who do not experience all overall weight loss still decrease their risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease (Ross Janssen, 1999).The original research suggests that exercise without weight loss is actually linked to reductions in visceral fat (Ross Janssen 1999). In two similar studies, Ross et al. (2000) and Sopko et al. (1985) showed that exercisers who did not lose weight experienced improved insulin sensitivity and an increase in their helpful HDL cholesterol. These findings are important because in the event that weight loss is not achieved, a person who is at increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), or its comorbid conditions (i.e., high kin pressure, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance), still benefits from regular aerophilic exercise participation.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSThe applications from this review article are consequential to the personal trainer and fitness professional for two important reasons. It is well established that exercise and diet adaption is the best method for weight loss. However, Ross and colleagues and Sopko and associates also show the efficacy and worth of exercise only programs for promoting weight loss (in toilsome and obese populations). Also, from a health perspective it is quite meaningful to emphasize that aerobic exercise independently decreases the risk of CAD and related comobidites.For health benefits, Ross et al. (2000) confirm established recommendations of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity, such as brisk walking, for 30 to 60 minutes on most days of the week. The also suggest that substantial reductions in obesity and related comorbid conditions will result when daily exer cise is performed at a moderate intensity for 45 to 60 minutes a day without deceasing caloric intake. However, since most of this health benefits research has been done in predominantly male populations, more research is needed with overweight and obese female populations to validate these benefits in women.ReferencesGrundy, S.M., G. Blackburn, M. Higgins, R. Lauer, M. Perri, D. Ryan. Roundtable Consensus Statement Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 31 S502-S508, 1999.Hagan, R.D., S.J. Upton, L. Wong, and J. Whittam. The effects of aerobic conditioning and/or caloric restriction in overweight men and women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1887-94, 1986.National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults The Evidence Report. Obes. Res. 6(Suppl 2), 1998.Pate, R.R., M. Pratt, S.N. Blair, W.L. Has kell, C.A. Macera, C. Bouchard, D. Buchner, W. Ettinger, G.W. Heath, A.C. King, et al. Physical activity and public health. A recommendation for the Centers for Disease Control and legal community and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA. 273402-407, 1995.Ross, R., D. Dagnone, P.J.H. Jones, H. Smith, A. Paddags, R. Hudson and I. Janssen. Reduction in obesity and related comorbid conditions after diet-induced weight loss or exercise-induced weight loss in men A randomized controlled trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 13392-103, 2000Ross, R., and I. Janssen. Is abdominal fat preferentially reduced in responseto exercise-induced weight loss? Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 31 S568-S572, 1999.Ross, R., J.A. Freeman, and I. Janssen. Exercise alone is an effective strategy for reducing obesity and related comorbidities. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 28 165-170, 2000.Sopko, G., A. Leon, D. Jacobs, N. Foster, J. Moy, K. Kuba, J. Anderson, D. Casal, C. McNally, and I. Frantz. The effects of exercise and we ight loss and plasma lipids in puppylike obese men. Metabolism. 34227-236, 1985.