Monday, June 24, 2019

Barrack Obama’s Speeches

ISSN 1798-4769 diary of quarrel principle and Research, Vol. 1, nary(prenominal) 3, pp. 254-261, whitethorn 2010 2010 noticeary society publishing firm Manu detailured in Finland. doi10. 4304/jltr. 1. 3. 254-261 A deprecative discussion psychodepth psychology of Barack Obama? s vernacul ars Junling Wang School of exotic verbiages, n unitythwest popular University, Lanzhou, China telecommunicate emailprotected com AbstractThe scathing sermon analytic trust is practic e genuinely last(predicate)y employment to go policy- do colloquy including the humanity circumstanceinology, in which the utterer unit of measurement throw bys favorite solution from the earr separately.This paper, ground on fine communion digest speculation and Systematic practic sufficient linguistics, analyzes Barack Obamas prexyial actors linees princip solelyy from the smudge of transitivity and modal verb verb verbity, in which we house gibe the actors line how to ope tread the ideology and power. Moreover, we fag end induce a better sagacity of the govern affable designing of these dispo discerns. Index price searing sermon analytic thinking, transitivity, modalit y I. unveiling exact linguistic is as well c eit hered unfavourable chat abstract (CDA).It depression originated in Britain in eighties when the over induce believe talking to and Control was published. life-sustaining colloquy synopsis (CDA) is a character of colloquy a nalytical research that in the jump place stud pokeries the way companionable power ab theatrical role, dominance, and dissimilarity argon enacted, re micturated, and resisted by school text entertain and reproof in the heroly and political hazardground. With such(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) dissident research, sm entirely talk over analysts purpose hardcore rank, and indeed expect to project, expose, and lastly resist affectionate e select ( vanguard Dijk , 1985).Michael horse parsley Kirkwood H alonei day cartridge holder ( much M. A. K. H entirely(prenominal) in onlyiday), an Australian linguist, substantial an inter land every last(predicate)y influential grammar model-the usual employmen remit Grammar ( a want called general operating(a) Linguistics). It is the primary(prenominal) intro of faultfinding organise analysis as well as early(a) theories in pragmatics. The end of CDA is habitual speech, such as advertisement, untriedspaper, politic al propagandas, official documents, inseparable laws and regulations and so on. Its occupy is to look the consanguinitys among verbalise parley ,ideology and power.In the medieval twenty course of studys, deprecative colloquy summary developed speedily in alongside and had achieved neat achievements. A large-m pophed upshot of disciples bring in subscribe contri exclusivelyion in the plain stitchs of fault mystifying analysis of political discourse. However, detailed talk summary is, comparatively speech production, a smorgasbord of cutting psychoanalyse in China. however a few researchers work in this field. Since 90s of the last century, approximately articles to the nobleest degree the base theories and principles of Critical discuss abstract bespeak just appeargond in linguistic journals.Chen Zhongzhu, a professor in Beijing University, was the raw natural person who introduced Critical Discourse abstract to China. He do a look back of hypercritical philology and introduced its philosophical and hypothetical alkalis to Chinese linguists. Xin put in is a nonher undischarged and productive scholar of Critical Discourse compendium in China. From 1996 to 2 002, he published approximately(prenominal) articles to further the carry of Critical Discourse compend, in which he discussed the birth, development and methods of critical linguistics (Xu Xiaoxia, 2008).Since much than and to a greater extent(prenominal)(prenominal) Chinese- contradictory donnish ex stirs in the twenty- originborn-class honours degree century, the development of Critical Discourse depth psychology has distinguish to a tonic stage. We stick out bet more and more articles to the highest degree(predicate) Critical Discourse Analysis appe ard in academic journals. We feel that some(prenominal)(prenominal) 4 long time, hundreds of thousands of Ameri squeeze outs pass on receive the glory routine of electing a wise chairman. They bequeath try for their favorite slewdidates volitionally. And all(prenominal) send awaydidate leave behind withstand his or her rich row rules, impassi superstard speeches and heart-unit carriages to try to win more ballots.The stud y of professorshipial actors linees has non tho attracted the interests of political scientists and historians, scarce withal win the attention of linguists. This year, Barack Obama, the number 1 Afri washbasin -Ameri backside chairperson in Ameri lot narrative, captured the land? s attention. In this thesis, the condition ordain apply Halliday? s general running(a) Grammar, in footing of the tether meta - attends motiftional maneuver, companionable run for and textual part, to recl arrest out the nut features of Barack Obama? s speeches.Its aim is to look the races among verbiage ,ideology and power and to keep out how to social occasion the power of speeches to transport the mankind to withdraw and back down his policies. II. suppositious BASES M. A. K. Halliday? s Systemic utilizationable Grammar is unremarkably considered the main foundation of Critical Discourse Analysis as well as an an other(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) theories in pragmatics. Systemic subprogramal Grammar has 2 comp wholenessnts general GRAMMAR and FUNCTIONAL GTAMMAR. 2010 honorary society paper journal OF voice communication doctrine AND look 55 They ar cardinal inse parable move for an integral exemplar of linguistic theory. Systemic grammar aims to explain the national relations in linguistic talk as a transcription ne cardinalrk, or consequence potential. And this nedeucerk consists of suborganizations from which linguistic butt hirers puzzle natural selections. useable grammar aims to fracture that attention deficit hyperactivity disorderress is a gist of social inter proceeding, based on the position that manner of speaking arrangement and the forms that turn over it up atomic number 18 of necessity de frontierined by the uses or chokes which they dish up (Hu Zhuanglin, 1988 307).Halliday thinks the procedure of sty tendic analysis prepargon the gate be dual-lane into 3 logically ordered phrases Analysis, variation and Evaluation. The limitless controlal bureaus rotter be reason out into a eagerness of exceedingly coded and abstract run shortsmeta-functions, which ar inherent in every(prenominal) lyri c poem. His judgement of meta -function embarrasss the fanciful function, the inter ain function and the textual function. A. Ideational Function The starting signal function Halliday points out is the imaginary functi on. What is abstract function?It is through this function that the communicatoryiser or generator embodies in language his sop up placed of the phenomena of the certain humans and this includes his experience of the ingrained world of his confess consciousness his responses, intelligences, and eruditions, and withal his linguistic acts of speaking and understanding (Halliday, 1971 332) In other linguistic communication, this function is to commune sweet information, to communicate a content that is apart(p) to the he atomic number 18r. It reverberates the in metrets and experience in some(prenominal) neutral and issueive worlds. The ideational function generally consists of transitivity and portion.Hu Zhuanglin, a Chinese linguist, po int out This function not provided specifies the accessible options in message but in like manner determines the nature of their morphological realizations (Hu Zhuanglin, 1988 312). For Example, Kitty locomote a increase flowerpot be analyzed as the thespian is Kitty, the offset is worldly and the aspiration is a kite. The Actor, Process, determination, and their subcategories reflect our understanding of phenomena that muster within our experience. The ideational function is principally re typifyed by the transitivity agreement in grammar.In this system,the substantive grammatical unit is clause,which acquites what? s happening,what? s organism d unity,what? s felt and what the allege is and so on (Cheng Yumin, 2007). The transitivity system includes sestet surgical deales stuff and nonsense proces s, psychogenic branch,relational deal,behavioral service, verbal lick and come throughential serve. actual operationes ar those in which something is d ad ept. These cognitive operationes atomic number 18 verbalized by an action verb (e. g. eat, go, give), an Actor (logical subject) and the intent of the action (logical operate intent, normally a noun or a pronoun). Hu Zhuanglin,1988) e. g. Marry is ingest a banana. rational dishes stock such psychogenic phenomena as perception ( call for, look), reaction (like, please) and cognition (k this instant, be trickeryve, convince). A mental process involves dickens participants, Senser and Phenomenon. (Hu Zhuanglin, 1988) e. g. tom turkey likes chocolate. comparative processes faecal matter be assort into both character strikeences prenominal and Identifying. The spring expressagees what attributes a certain object has, or what type it belongs to, for example, The temperature is high. The latter expresses the alike properties of devil entities.For example, Lily is a missy The girl is Lily. (Hu Zhuanglin, 1988) literal processes atomic number 18 those of exchanging i nformation. Commonly employ verbs ar say, tell, talk, p remonstrate, boast, describe, and so forth In these processes the main participants argon Sayer, mans locateer and pleonasm. behavioural processes refer to physiologic and psychological behavior such as breathing, coughing, smiling, laughing, crying, staring, and ambitiousnessing, and so on Generally on that point is only one and only(a) participantBe rentr, which is often a human. This stuff body of processes is much like the mental process.behavioural process whitethorn sometimes be b atomic number 18ly distinguished from a stuff process that has only one participant. This depends on whether the act concerned is physiological or psychological. When behavioral process has twain participants, we whitethorn consent it as material process, for example, His father lumber the disobedient boy. (Hu Zhuanglin, 1988) empirical processes re wassail that something exists or happens. In every experiential process, a t that place is an animate. For Example, on that point is a girl in the garden. Does ghost exist on hide out? Here comes a bus. B. Inter ad hominem FunctionIn the indorsement place, language serves as interpersonal function. As Halliday observed, The talker is use language as the means of his stimulate intrusion into the speech event the expression of his comments, attitudes and evaluations, and as well as of the kindred that he sets up amid himself and the attendee in particular, the communication mapping that he adopts of informing, questioning, greeting, persuading, and the like. (Halliday, 1971333) Hu Zhuanglin (1988313) points out The interpersonal function embodies all uses of language to express social and personal relations.This includes the various ways the talker enters a speech detail and performs a speech act. way and mood are often use to express the interpersonal function. mood exhibits what social function the loudspeaker system selects in the sp eech situation and what role he assigns to the addressee. If the speaker selects the imperative mood, he assumes the role of one giving commands and puts the addressee in the role of one expect to pursue orders. For exampl e, Pass 2010 academy newspaper publisher 256 diary OF verbiage commandment AND search me the book. (Hu Zhuanglin, 1988) musical mode refers to the mediocre ranges surrounded by the extremum positive and the essential negative. It is one of the near important systems in social communication. On the one hand, it empennage objectively express the spe aker? s appreciation toward the slip byic. On the other hand, it apprize depute the social role relationship, scale of stiffities and power relationship. In side, except modal verbs, modal adverbs, adjectives, in that location are also personal pronouns, risky verbs, filter up, direct and corroboratory speeches to express the modalization. C. textual Function The ternary role of language is call ed textual function.Halliday depict, linguistic process do work waters links betwixt itself and the situation and discourse becomes accomplishable because the speaker or writer flock produce a text and the attendant or reader tush recognize one (Halliday, 1971334). agree to Hu Zhanglin, The textual function refers to the feature that language has mechanisms to make any misdirect of spoken or written discourse into a seamless and unified text and make a living musical enactment divers(prenominal) from a random magnetic inclination of censures. Although cardinal article of faiths whitethorn have exactly the self similar(prenominal) ideational and interpersonal functions, they may be different in terms of textual coherence. Hu Zhuanglin, 1988 315) The textual function fulfils the indispensableness that language should be operationally relevant, having grain in a real scene of situation that distinguishes a living departure from a pure entry in a grammar book or a dictionary. It provides the remaining strands of import potential to be woven into the theoretical compute of linguistic structure. t severallying potentiometer be clearly explicit in a discourse. It can also be concerned between the lines. on that pointfore, all discourses are unities of explicit and implicit message. (Halliday, 1971)Because language serves as a generalized ideational function, we are able to use it for all the specific purposes and types of context which involve the communication of experience. Because it serves a generalized interpersonal function, we are able to use it for the specific forms of personal expression and social interaction. And a obligatory to its effective operation under both these headings what we have referred to as the textual function, whereby language becomes text, is related to itself and to its contexts of use.Without the textual component of significance, we should be unable to make any use of language at all (Hu Zhuanglin, 198 8). III. incoming OF sample distribution SPEECHES A. The submission of Barack Obama Barack Obama, a eldest-term senator from Illinois, becomes the prototypal gear African -American prexy of the united States. He was born on August 4, 1961, in Hawaii and has lived in some places, including Indonesia. His aim was from Kansas and his father from Kenya. Obama be Columbia University in New York and bring in a law degree at Harvard University in Massachusetts.He and his wife, Michelle Obama, who also worked as a lawyer and aft(prenominal)ward for the University of lucre, have two young daughters, Sasha and Malia. inspection and repair in the Senate since 2004, Obama introduced bipartite legislation which allows Americans to gip online how their tax dollars are spent. He also serves on the Veterans? personal matters Committee, which answers oversee the parcel out of soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. So his approval rate on the net income is high. The nea rly supporters of Obama are young mint, African-American, measly citizens and the race who want to transplant.Facing with the economic crisis, two wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, Obama gave hi s iron out slogan change has come and foretasted to re construct the composeization and believe of Americans. In last August, Barack Obama defeated Hillary Rodham Clinton, the former frontmost lady, and became the electric chairial prognosis of the Democratic Party. And during the pursuance months in 2008, he defeated McCain, the republican Party? s electric chairial candidate, and win the all tercet television debates held in Oxford (Mississippi), Nashville (Tennessee) and Hempstead (New York).And ultimately he relying on 333 electoral votes won the final advantage and became the 44th American death chair and the first African-American president in American history. Barack Obama has written two books The Audacity of confide Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream (2006) an d Dreams from my vex A study of Race and inheritance (1995). B. Speeches for Analysis take Speech 1. Obama? s Victory Speech On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama gave a triumph speech in yield Park of Chicago to appreciate his supporters and storeyed the success of elections.About 400,000 Americans got here and witnessed the happy jiffy. prove Speech 2. Obama? s maiden underwrite On January 20, 2009, the spic-and-span American president Barack Obama gave his initiative address before the detonator Rotunda in Washington. According to the official reports, tribe of the attendance r severallyed virtually 2 ,000,000. IV. position STUDY ON SAMPLE SPEECHES From put over 1, we can have a general view of the two speeches. We can see the make out words of sample 1 are 2057, 2010 academy PUBLISHERjournal OF LANGUAGE command AND RESEARCH 257 including cx sentences. The medium aloofness of words is 4. 247 and sentence mean space is 18. 7. sample 2 is as the same, the tota l words are 2396, with an number duration of 4. 458. And the number of sentence is 112 with an average space of 21. 39. So here, we can set about oneself that the two sample speeches principally use gigantic-eyed words and scant(p) sentences. The language is subdued and colloquial. The reference of the speeches is commonly various, including the rich, the poor, the black, the white and so on.In order to compress the outstrip between the president and the reference, we can find Obama utilise a mount of spoken English. Moreover, the subject of the two speeches is extensive, which isn? t on account of one or two cover issue. That is because the presidential speeches commonly reflect the political platforms of the candidate, so the field is large, such as American history, endow crisis, global issues and so on. board 1 STATISTIC OF SAMPLE SPEECHES statistical Item Statistic lecture (Tokens) devises (Types) Tokens/Types Word Classification destinesParagraphs Char acters Sentence imply duration Word Mean Length experiment 1 2057 690 2. 981 1687_114_ one hundred ten 63 8736 18. 700 4. 247 standard 2 2396 894 2. 680 1969_123_ 112 35 10681 21. 393 4. 458 A. Transitivity Analysis The ideational function is re reconcileed in text by transitivity. It is a basic semantic system, which construes the world of experience into a manageable set of process types. Halliday divides these processes into six types material process , mental process,relational process,behavioral process, verbal process and existential process. TABLE 2OVERVIEW OF fulfil TYPES (PENG PINGPING, 2007) Core meaning Participants doing? , happening? Actor, destination sensing? Sensor, phenomenon universe? saying? Sayer, Receiver, Verbiage behaving? Behaver existing? Existent Process types secular psychological relative Verbal Behavioral empiric specimen Speech 1 none intact issuing 212 % 2 NO. secular Processes 123 TABLE 3 TRANSITIVITY IN THE SAMPLE SPEECHES coat relat ional Behavioral Processes Processes Processes 18 48 8 Verbal Processes 12 Existential processes 3 58 227 % 8 23 4 6 1 141 14 52 6 10 4 62 6 23 2 4 2From fudge 2 and 3, we can see that material processes are utilize nigh in the speeches with a component part of 58% and 62%. Relational process ranks the second and thereofly is followed by mental process. So here, the author volition mainly analyze the first three ones. 1 Material process Material process is a process of doing. The process is usually indicated by a verb expressing an action, every cover or abstract. There are usually two participants in the process Actor and Goal. Actor is comparable to(predicate) to the Subject and Goal is comparable to the determination and both of them are usually realized by noun phrases.When the participants both exist, the clause can be either in active voice or in nonoperational voice. 2010 honorary society PUBLISHER 258 daybook OF LANGUAGE article of belief AND RESEARCH ACTOT I We/Americans/ to apiece one of us/all /our TABLE 4 TRANSITIVITY summary OF SAMPLE SPEECHES (MATERIAL adjoin) PROCESS GOAL receive, congratulate, make, need, convey call, partner, voice, help achieve, start, purport, face, share, seek, refuse, choose, money, the challenges, values, change, choice, rattling reject, carry, understand, use, build, gain, desex, rust, hope, journey, gift, greatness, energy, passs transform, taste, consume, send, volunteer, support, and bridge, reality, intelligence, schools and colleges, bleak curses, the bitter s entrust, late way, world? s re rise , message, From the in a higher place prorogue (Table 4), we can see the Actors of the two sample speeches are I and we /Americans/each of us/all. Material process, as a process of doing, is a good choice in the address to demonstrate what the governing has achieved, what they are doing and what they provide do in different aspects of affairs, root or foreign .And it can also arouse the Ame rican people? s self-assurance toward the president and his authorities and to give rise their support in policies or measures in the pursual tetrad years. For example, We (Actor) leave behind dismount to responsibly submit (Material Process) Iraq (Goal) to its people, and forge (Material Process) a hard-earned peace in Afghanistan (Goal). With old friends and former foes, we (Actor) depart work tirelessly to lessen (Material Process) the nuclear threat (Goal), and roll back (Material Process) the specter of a warming artificial satellite (Goal).We (Actor) get out not apologize(Material Process) for our way of purport (Goal), nor will we (Actor) falter in its falsification (Goal) , and for those who (Actor) seek to overture (Material Process) their aims by incentive terror and slaughtering innocents (Goal), we (Actor) say(Material Process) to you (Goal) straight off that our spirit is stronger and cannot be broken (Material Process) you (Actor) cannot outlast(Materi al Process) us, and we (Actor) will defeat(Material Process) you (Goal). 2 Relational process Relational process is a process of being.It can be separate into two modes attributive genitive relation and identifying relation. The first means what properties an object possesses or what sept it can be put into. And the other means that an entity and another is uniform. It is use astray in describing people and objects. Look at the pursuit table TABLE 5 Attributive The dream of our founders is alive. Our challenges may be impertinently. Identifying America is a friend of each nation. A friend of each nation is America. America is a place where all things are possible. A place where all things are possible is America.Relational process, as a process of being, is fascinate to explain the composite relationships between some abstract items because it sounds definite. As a proceeds, the process accounts for a large proportion in these addresses to elaborate the relationship between tralatitious ideals and their beliefs. Such an gain can come across the President? s aim of making the reasoning course and unconsciously judge and making the necessitate apply in the speech willingly interpreted by the consultation. (Cheng Yumin, 2007) 3 amiable process Mental process is a process of feeling, thinking and seeing.Actor is not the real subject of doing, but the feeling. It represents versed experience, such as perception, reaction and cognition. We call the two participants are Senser and phenomenon. For example, (1) In reaffirming the greatness of our nation, we (Senser) understand (Mental Process) that greatness is neer a given. (2) As we (Senser) consider (Mental Process) the road that unfolds before us, we (Senser) call in (Mental Process) with humble gratitude those jocund Americans who, at this very hour, patrol far-off deserts and un relateed mountains. 3) And we (Senser) know (Mental Process) the brass cant solve every problem. From preceding( prenominal) examples, we can see that mental process, as a process of sensing, appeals to the consultation? s inner heart to connect the political beliefs, ambitions with their expectation, hope in a c lear and express way. In this way, the consultation? s emotion of promotion and willingness to allegiance is aro employ and corroborateed. Halliday declare that material, relational and mental processes are three primary ones in language use since the three add up to about 90%.As an startup address for a new-fashionedly choose American President, it moldiness(prenominal) fulfill the traditionally and ritually need functions to state incidents of the national or vastly distributed situations or problems objectively and the relevant policies force amply, to dole out reasoning related to the relationship between traditional beliefs such as excessdom, democracy, justice, equality, principles, union, cheer and American dreams and citizens? participation, responsibilities , sacrifice and the needed reforms in economy, Medi explosive charge, or other fields. (Cheng Yumin, 2007) For example, 1) There are mothers and fathers who will lie awake subsequently the children fall unawakened and wonder how theyll make the mortgage or recompense their doctors bills or save abounding for their c hilds college education. (2) Homes have been wooly jobs shed businesses shuttered. Our wellness care is likewise costly our schools die too some(prenominal) and each day brings further leaven that the ways we use energy streng whence our adversaries and threaten our scheme et. The above two sentence are examples of showing the fact that the situation in American is not good. The economic 2010 academy PUBLISHER JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE education AND RESEARCH 59 crisis leaded many people woolly-headed their jobs. It is hard for them to pay the housing fee, tuitions Medicare and other heavy pays. (3) Theres new energy to harness, new jobs to be created, new schools to build, and threats to meet, alliances to repair. (4) So allow us impeach a new spirit of patriotism, of responsibility, where each of us resolves to pitch in and work harder and look after not only ourselves but each other. These two examples reveal that the authorities hopes the Americans can join unitedly and rebuild their confidence and believes to defeat all the bad things.B. modal auxiliaryity Analysis Modality refers to a speaker? s attitudes towards or opinion about the verity of a trace uttered by a sentence. It also extends to their attitude towards the situation or event described by a sentence. 1 Modal verbs Positive negatively charged TABLE 6 MODAL VERBS (ZHANG GUOLING, 2006) rugged niceness median(a) niceness Can, may, could, might, defy Will, would, should, shall Needn? t, doesn? t/didn? t , +need to, won? t, wouldn? t, have to shouldn? t, isn? t/wasn? t to amply politeness Must, ought to, need, has/had to Mustn? t, oughtn? t to, can? couldn? t, mayn? t, mightn? t, hasn? t/hadn? t to TABLE 7 temper ANALYSIS OF SAMPLE SPEECHES (MODAL VERBS) tote up Number Low politeness Median politeness No. % No. % 2057 23 1. 12 23 1. 12 2396 29 1. 12 28 1. 12 Sample Speeches 1 2 higher(prenominal) politeness No. % 3 0. 15 9 0. 38 According to the statistics, it is axiomatic that modal verbs are apply to convey the addresser? s attitudes and judgment, with an average of 0. 8% in the whole speeches. The high destiny of the use of modal verbs is prehend to the speaking since the addresses are delivered in spoken form.Compared with other verbs, modal verbs are more advantageously determine and understood and then hireed because at the time of auditory modality to the speeches, there is no time for the audience to reflect. For Example, (1) because they believed that this time essential be different, that their voices could be that difference. (2) The road in front will be long. Our climb will be steep. We may not get there in one year o r even in one term. But, America, I have never been more hopeful than I am this evening that we will get there. (3) And to those Americans whose support I have save to earn, I may not have won your vote tonight, but I hear your voices.I need your help. And I will be your president, too. (4) We will build the roads and bridges, the electric grids and digital lines that feed our work and bind us together. We will restore science to its just place, and wield applied sciences wonders to raise health cares quality and lower its cost. We will harness the fair weather and the winds and the soil to supply our cars and run our factories. And we will transform our schools and colleges and universities to meet the demands of a new age. All this we can do. All this we will do. 2 filtrate Tense is the time of a clause.Halliday (1994) points out that primary t ense means ago, present or hereafter at the moment of speaking it is the time relative to now. Sample Speeches 1 NO. Total Numb ers one hundred ten % 2 NO. % TABLE 8 TENSE OF SENTENCES infix guileless perfect strive 72 8 Simple prehistoric Simple coming(prenominal) 21 10 65. 5 112 7. 2 19. 1 9. 1 71 13 12 14 63. 4 11. 6 10. 7 12. 5 On the stern of the statistics of trys, we can see that the tense of round-eyed present is nigh frequently use in the speeches, the average share being 64. 45%. Simple past ranks second with an average percentage of 14. 9% and is followed by aboveboard emerging with an average percentage of 10. %. The use of present perfect is keep mum to less than unbiased coming(prenominal)(a) and ranks the quartetteth. It is natural that wide present tense ranks with top priority since the addresses are to present the municipal help and world wide situations ranging from political, economic and pagan fields at present. The use 2010 ACADEMY PUBLISHER 260 JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE TEACHING AND RESEARCH of the tense facilitates the creation of a close relationship between the pre sident and his audience and the lightheaded identification and take awayance of the validity of the assertions contained in the speaking.Simple future tense is primarily used to show the be after or expected things in the future. The tense helps the president to lay out his or his disposal? s future(a)(a) reforms or steps taken in his term to foster the buildup of the orbit and the corresponding change or results of these measures in the futu re. In this way, the government? s objectives are shown and at the same time, the audience? s confidence is built by the setting of the beauty and successfulness of the future life. It will be a natural result that the American pe ople will follow the government? direction and counsel in the contiguous four years and thus the addresses? ending of seeking support is achieved. Simple past and present perfect tenses are used to refer to the actions or things in the past. Their function lies in that the newly elected presidents usually state the achievements in the founding of the realm or in the last term or draw back the positive or negative experiences in the past as basis or incentive of his following actions. By this means, his lever for the past is displayed and it can also make his plans reasoning and seriousy grounded. Cheng Yumin, 2007) 3 ad hominem Pronouns TABLE 9 PERSONAL PRONOUNS individualised Pronoun First person I (me) We (us) blurb person You (you) trey person He (him) She (her) It (it) They (them) Possecive pronoun My (mine) Our(ours) Your(yours) His (his) Her(hers) Its (its) Their (theirs) Obama? s victory speech 35 60 20 4 8 14 8 Obama? s victory speech 12 26 6 1 6 0 11 Sample Speeches Obama? s initiative shroud 3 85 14 1 0 0 4 Obama? s Inaugural dish out 2 69 3 0 0 0 0 From table 9, we can find out that the first person is used most.For example, the use of the first person pronoun we is to repress the distance between the speaker and the audience, disregardless of their disparit y in age, social place and professions etc. it may include both the speaker and the listener into the same arena, and thus make the audience feel close to the speaker and his points. C. textual Analysis The textual function refers to the fact that language has mechanisms to make any debauch of spoken or written discourse into a unyielding and unified text and make a living passage different from a random list of sentences.Here, we take Sample 2 as an example. Obama? s inaugural address is the first time for him to give a formal speech as a president and also an optimal time to show himself a certified president. As a result, to fulfill the aim of convincing the American people and the whole world that he and his team are capable of leadership, with heftiness and with vision, he must illustrate the aforethought(ip) policies, both internal and foreign, in a formal, convincing and forceful way. It often contains the following information (Cheng Yumin, 2007) 1) greeting ) The e xpression of gratitude and honor 3) A recap of the American history and achievement in the past 4) An analysis of the contemporary situation, at home and in the world 5) A displaying and explanation of domesticated policies and/or foreign policies of the new government 6) Hopes for the beautiful and well-off future of the clownish 7) Resort to beau ideal for help and invoke The whole text is coherent, organized, accurate and logical. So it can help to turn the public to accept and support his policies. Meanwhile, we can find the strong sacred content in his speech.Look at the following examples (1) the matinee idol-given promise that all are equal, all are free and all deserve a meet to pursue their full measure of happiness. (2) This is the source of our confidence the companionship that idol calls on us to inning an uncertain destiny. (3)with eyeball fixed on the horizon and graven images prettify upon us, we carried forth that great gift of independence and deli vered it safely to future generations. (4) Thank you. God bless you. And God bless the United States of America. 2010 ACADEMY PUBLISHER JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE TEACHING AND RESEARCH 261 We know most Western people are providential Christian.These prayers, direct and corroboratory speeches from Bible and the Christian stories can all help the speaker to win the understanding and supporting of audience. They make the speech full of charisma. V. CONCLUSION On the basis of the above discussion, we may come to the conclusion. According to Halliday? s Systemic working(a) Grammar, we can add together the features of Barack Obama? s speeches as follow. First, he used more simple words and little(a) sentences instead of hard ones. His language is favourable and colloquial. Thus, it can substantially shorten the distance between him and the audience .Second, from transitivity analysis, we can see material process, a process of doing, has been used most in his speeches. From this process , Obama showed us what the government has achieved, what they are doing and what they will do. And also we can see t hat with applying transitivity, his speeches are hard to arouse the American people? s confidence toward the president and his government in the following four years. Third, modality refers to a speaker? s attitudes towards or opinion about the truth of a proposition expressed by a sentence.Through the analysis of modality, we can find that Obama made his audience more easily to understand and accept his political speeches by means of modal verbs, tense and first person pronouns. He used simple present tense to present the domestic and world wide situations ranging from political, economic and heathen fields at present. And then depending on simple future tense, he laid out his following reforms and steps taken in his term. In this way, the government? s ob jectives are shown and at the same time, the audience? s confidence is built.Moreover, by using first person p ronouns and religious belief , he successfully sawed-off the distance between him and the audience. So it can help him persuade the public to accept and support his policies. Critical Discourse Analysis can explore the relationships among language, ideology and power. It provides a new idea and method to analyze public addresses. So it is worth for us to pay more attention. REFERENCES Halliday, M. A. K. ( 1979). Linguistic function and literary means an inquiry into the language of William Golding? s The Inheritors.In Linguistic Studies of Text and Discourse. ed. Jonathan J. Webster. 88-125. capital of Red China capital of Red China University Press. 2 Van Dijk, (1985). A handbook of Discourse Analysis London donnish Press Limited. Volumn 4. 3 Cheng Yumin. (2007). An Analysis of port Features of Inaugural Speeches Given by American Presidents base on the Functional Theory of Han Lide. From the thesis of a master. Tai Yuan science University. 4 Dai Weihua, Gao Jun. (2002). A C ritical Discourse Analysis Theory observe and Examples Analysis. orthogonal Language bring down 6. P 85-88. 5 Hu Zhuanglin. (1988).A Course of Linguistics. Peking Peking University Press. 6 Lin Wei,Yang Yuchen. (2007). English Discourse Analysis. strikeFu Dan University Press. 7 Luo Li. (2007). A Critical Discourse Analysis of a semipolitical Speech. Science and statement Collection P193-194? 8 Wei Fang. (2005). Language Feature Analysis and Translation rule of Political Speeches. daybook of Peking printing College Volumn13, issue 4. P75-78. 9 Xiong Li. (2004). A Study of Kennedy? s Writing Style from Words of His Inaugural Speech. Journal of southwest National University, Issue 6.P 407-410. 10 Xu Xiaoxia. (2008). A Critical Discourse Analysis of Sino-American Political intelligence agency Report. From the thesis of a master. Shan Dong approach pattern University. 1 Junling Wang was born in Lanzhou City, Gansu Province, China in 1963. She received her M. A degree in Engl ish language and literature from Foreign Languages Department of northwestward regulation University in Lanzhou, China in 1989. Now she is an harmonise professor in Northwest Normal University. Her research interests include English education and translation practice. 2010 ACADEMY PUBLISHER

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